A diagnosis of DCIS presents many dilemmas. According to an article entitled Clinical Dilemma of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ,  by Jay Harris and Monica Morrow in the 2009 Journal of Clinical Oncology: “Current management strategies for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) range from mastectomy to excision plus radiation therapy (RT) to excision alone. This diverse spectrum of therapies reflects our inability to predict which DCIS will progress to invasive cancer or even which DCIS will recur when treated conservatively with excision alone. Therefore, the selection of the appropriate therapeutic approach for the individual patient with DCIS is a major dilemma.”

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